Jerusalem has a long and complex history that spans over thousands of years. It has been a sacred city for many different religions and cultures, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
During the time of the Islamic empire, the city was conquered by the Muslim general Salah al-Din (also known as Saladin) in 1187. Saladin was the first Muslim ruler of Egypt and Syria and is known for his military victories over the Crusaders in the Holy Land. After defeating the Crusaders, Saladin allowed Christians and Jews to continue living in Jerusalem, but they were required to pay a tax in order to do so.
Saladin made Jerusalem the capital of his empire and built several important landmarks, including the Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock. These structures remain important religious and cultural sites in the city today.
Throughout its history, Jerusalem has been a center of conflict and has been conquered and ruled by a number of different powers, including the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, and the State of Israel. Today, the city is a major cultural and religious center for Jews, Christians, and Muslims, and is considered a sacred place by millions of people around the world.